A Bibliography of Anti-Arab Discrimination, Stereotyping, and Media Bias


Post-9-/11 Report on Hate Crimes and Discrimination (Washington, DC: ADC Research Institute, 2002). Detailed report on anti-Arab incidents in the first 6 months after 9/11. Physical attacks and other hate crimes, job discrimination, civil liberties violations, airline profiling, media bias and other problems.

1998-2000 Report on Hate Crimes and Discrimination Against Arab Americans (Washington, DC: ADC Research Institute, 2001). 77 page report on legal issues, physical and psychological attacks, job discrimination, airline profiling, INS discrimination, educational discrimination, media bias and defamation, biased news coverage, bias in election campaigns.

1996-1997 Report on Hate Crimes and Discrimination Against Arab Americans (Washington, DC: ADC Research Institute, 1997). 48 page report documenting hate crimes, discrimination in the workplace and corporate world, airport profiling, governmental and law enforcement agencies, as well as defamation in films, television, news and education.

1995 Report on Anti-Arab Racism: Hate Crimes, Discrimination and Defamation of Arab Americans (Washington, DC: ADC Research Institute, 1995). 20 page discussion of anti-Arab hate crimes and the after-effects of the Oklahoma City bombing; also covers media bias and discrimination in the workplace, governmental agencies, and educational institutions.

1991 Report on Anti-Arab Hate Crimes: Political and Hate Violence against Arab-Americans (Washington, DC: ADC Research Institute, 1992). Documents the upsurge of anti-Arab hate crimes during the Gulf war.

ADC Times. Bimonthly newsletter of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee. Current news and information on anti-Arab bias and discrimination, ADC campaigns.

Collateral Damage: The New World Order at Home and Abroad (Boston: South End Press, 1992.) Abraham, Nabeel. “The Gulf Crisis and Anti-Arab Racism in America” in Cynthia Peters, ed.,

Arab Americans: An Evolving Identity, “Anti-Arab Racism and Violence in America” by Ernest McCarus, ed. (Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1992).

Evaluation of Secondary-Level Textbooks for Coverage of the Middle East and North Africa. Barlow, Elizabeth, ed. (Ann Arbor, MI: Center for Middle Eastern and North African Studies; Tucson, AZ: Middle East Studies Association, 3rd edition, 1994). Academic Middle East specialists analyze 80 high school textbooks in geography, world history and American history. They found over reliance on the Bedouin stereotype, eurocentrism, pro-Israel bias, and a presentation of Islam abounding in crude distortions and errors. Introduction provides overview.

Middle East Journal (Summer 1987). Christison, Kathleen. “The Arab in Recent Popular Fiction.”

Silent No More: Confronting America‘s False Images of Islam Findley, Paul (Amana Pubs: 2001). Findley details his journey in correcting his own stereotypes; discusses civil liberties violations, misconceptions about Islam, biased “experts” on Islam, the impact of discrimination on the American Muslim community.

"The Arab Image in American Film and TV" Georgakas, Dan and Rosen, Miriam, eds. Cineaste 17 (No. 1). A special supplement.

Split Vision: The Portrayal of Arabs in the American Media Ghareeb, Edmund, ed. (Washington, DC: American-Arab Affairs Council, 1983). Interviews with 17 leading journalists; essays analyzing the Arab image in the press, fiction, TV, political cartoons and textbooks.

States of Confinement: Policing, Detention and Prisions, “At the Constitution‘s Edge: Arab-Americans and Civil Liberties” Ibish, Hussein - edited by Joy James (St. Martins Press, 2000). Raises issues of secret evidence, First Amendment rights of immigrants, airport profiling, repression of Arab-American political activists.

Race in 21st Century America, “Anti-Arab Bias in American Discourse and Policy” edited by Curtis Stokes, Theresa Melendez, and Genice Rhodes-Reed. (Michigan State University Press, 2001).

The New Intifada: Resisting Israel‘s Apartheid “The U.S. Media and the New Intifada,” Ibish, Hussein and Ali Abunimah, ed. Roane Carey (Verso, 2001). A critical survey.


Kasem, Casey. “Arab Defamation in the Media: Its Consequences and Solutions.” The Link 23, No. 5 (December 1990). 8-page article.

Keen, Sam. Faces of the Enemy (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1986). Excellent analysis of the “psychology of enmity” as expressed in political posters and cartoons throughout the 20th century. Includes a number of anti-Arab and anti-Muslim cartoons, showing the similarity in theme to other forms of political propaganda. Lavishly illustrated.

Michelak, Lawrence, "Cruel and Unusual: Negative Images of Arabs in American Popular Culture" (Washington, DC: ADC Research Institute, 1988). Historical analysis of films, comics.

Sabbagh, Suha, "Sex, Lies and Stereotypes: Images of Arabs in American Popular Fiction" (Washington, DC: ADC Research Institute, 1990). Analysis of themes in thriller novels.

Said, Edward. Orientalism (New York: Vintage Books, Random House, 1978). Landmark critique of the way in which Western culture, colonialism and scholarship through the ages has constructed an image of the Arab and Muslim worlds as alien and “other.”

Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine How We See the Rest of the World (New York: