A Bibliography of Anti-Arab Discrimination, Stereotyping, and Media Bias
Post-9-/11 Report on Hate Crimes and Discrimination (Washington, DC: ADC Research Institute, 2002). Detailed report on anti-Arab incidents in the first 6 months after 9/11. Physical attacks and other hate crimes, job discrimination, civil liberties violations, airline profiling, media bias and other problems.
1998-2000 Report on Hate Crimes and Discrimination Against Arab Americans (Washington, DC: ADC Research Institute, 2001). 77 page report on legal issues, physical and psychological attacks, job discrimination, airline profiling, INS discrimination, educational discrimination, media bias and defamation, biased news coverage, bias in election campaigns.
1996-1997 Report on Hate Crimes and Discrimination Against Arab Americans (Washington, DC: ADC Research Institute, 1997). 48 page report documenting hate crimes, discrimination in the workplace and corporate world, airport profiling, governmental and law enforcement agencies, as well as defamation in films, television, news and education.
1995 Report on Anti-Arab Racism: Hate Crimes, Discrimination and Defamation of Arab Americans (Washington, DC: ADC Research Institute, 1995). 20 page discussion of anti-Arab hate crimes and the after-effects of the Oklahoma City bombing; also covers media bias and discrimination in the workplace, governmental agencies, and educational institutions.
1991 Report on Anti-Arab Hate Crimes: Political and Hate Violence against Arab-Americans (Washington, DC: ADC Research Institute, 1992). Documents the upsurge of anti-Arab hate crimes during the Gulf war.
ADC Times. Bimonthly newsletter of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee. Current news and information on anti-Arab bias and discrimination, ADC campaigns.
Collateral Damage: The New World Order at Home and Abroad (Boston: South End Press, 1992.) Abraham, Nabeel. “The Gulf Crisis and Anti-Arab Racism in America” in Cynthia Peters, ed.,
Arab Americans: An Evolving Identity, “Anti-Arab Racism and Violence in America” by Ernest McCarus, ed. (Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1992).
Evaluation of Secondary-Level Textbooks for Coverage of the Middle East and North Africa. Barlow, Elizabeth, ed. (Ann Arbor, MI: Center for Middle Eastern and North African Studies; Tucson, AZ: Middle East Studies Association, 3rd edition, 1994). Academic Middle East specialists analyze 80 high school textbooks in geography, world history and American history. They found over reliance on the Bedouin stereotype, eurocentrism, pro-Israel bias, and a presentation of Islam abounding in crude distortions and errors. Introduction provides overview.
Middle East Journal (Summer 1987). Christison, Kathleen. “The Arab in Recent Popular Fiction.”
Silent No More: Confronting America‘s False Images of Islam Findley, Paul (Amana Pubs: 2001). Findley details his journey in correcting his own stereotypes; discusses civil liberties violations, misconceptions about Islam, biased “experts” on Islam, the impact of discrimination on the American Muslim community.
"The Arab Image in American Film and TV" Georgakas, Dan and Rosen, Miriam, eds. Cineaste 17 (No. 1). A special supplement.
Split Vision: The Portrayal of Arabs in the American Media Ghareeb, Edmund, ed. (Washington, DC: American-Arab Affairs Council, 1983). Interviews with 17 leading journalists; essays analyzing the Arab image in the press, fiction, TV, political cartoons and textbooks.
States of Confinement: Policing, Detention and Prisions, “At the Constitution‘s Edge: Arab-Americans and Civil Liberties” Ibish, Hussein - edited by Joy James (St. Martins Press, 2000). Raises issues of secret evidence, First Amendment rights of immigrants, airport profiling, repression of Arab-American political activists.
Race in 21st Century America, “Anti-Arab Bias in American Discourse and Policy” edited by Curtis Stokes, Theresa Melendez, and Genice Rhodes-Reed. (Michigan State University Press, 2001).
The New Intifada: Resisting Israel‘s Apartheid “The U.S. Media and the New Intifada,” Ibish, Hussein and Ali Abunimah, ed. Roane Carey (Verso, 2001). A critical survey.
Kasem, Casey. “Arab Defamation in the Media: Its Consequences and Solutions.” The Link 23, No. 5 (December 1990). 8-page article.
Keen, Sam. Faces of the Enemy (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1986). Excellent analysis of the “psychology of enmity” as expressed in political posters and cartoons throughout the 20th century. Includes a number of anti-Arab and anti-Muslim cartoons, showing the similarity in theme to other forms of political propaganda. Lavishly illustrated.
Michelak, Lawrence, "Cruel and Unusual: Negative Images of Arabs in American Popular Culture" (Washington, DC: ADC Research Institute, 1988). Historical analysis of films, comics.
Sabbagh, Suha, "Sex, Lies and Stereotypes: Images of Arabs in American Popular Fiction" (Washington, DC: ADC Research Institute, 1990). Analysis of themes in thriller novels.
Said, Edward. Orientalism (New York: Vintage Books, Random House, 1978). Landmark critique of the way in which Western culture, colonialism and scholarship through the ages has constructed an image of the Arab and Muslim worlds as alien and “other.”
Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine How We See the Rest of the World (New York: Pantheon Books, 1981) Analysis of the media‘s construction of an image of “Islam” that is “part fiction, part ideological label,” and is in no real correspondence with the immensely varied life of the peoples within the world of Islam.
Said, Edward and Hitchens, Christopher. Blaming the Victim: Spurious Scholarship and the Palestine Question. Critiques of biased scholarship on the Arab world. Said, Hitchens, Noam Chomsky, Norman Finkelstein, Rashid Khalidi, Ibrahim Abu-Lughod. Critiques of Joan Peters, Michael Walzer, scholarship on ancient Palestine, peasant resistance to Zionism, terrorism.
Shaheen, Jack. Arab and Muslim Stereotyping in American Popular Culture (Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding, Georgetown University, 1997). Discusses films, TV, news broadcasts.
"The Comic Book Arab" The Link 24 (Nov.-Dec., 1991).
“The Influence of the Arab Stereotype on Children” (Washington, DC: ADC Research Institute, 1980). Effects on Arab American and other children.
Reel Bad Arabs: How Hollywood Vilifies a People (Northampton, MA: Interlink Publishing, 2001). Encyclopedic survey details stereotyping in over 900 films from the end of the 19th century, 40 page introduction.
The TV Arab (Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1984). Analysis of the image of Arabs in TV news and entertainment.
Slade, Shelly. “The Image of the Arab in America: Analysis of a Poll on American Attitudes.” Middle East Journal (Spring 1981).
Suleiman, Michael W. Arabs in the Mind of America (Brattleboro, VT: Amana Books, 1988).
Terry, Janice. Mistaken Vision (Washington, DC: American-Arab Affairs Council, 1985).
"The Uprising in Cartoons" (Washington, DC: ADC Research Institute, 1988). Political cartoons about the Intifada reflect the transition from negative stereotyping to a more sympathetic depiction of Palestinians, emergence of negative images of the Israeli occupation.
“Hollywood Harems” - Negative stereotypes of Middle Easterners in American cinema, focusing on women‘s roles. 30 minutes, 1999. (University of California at San Diego, Visual Arts Dept. 0084, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0084; (858) 756-7515; firstname.lastname@example.org)
Media Bias during the Gulf War and After
“The Other Gulf War Syndrome: Flaws in U.S. Media Coverage of the 1997-1998 Iraq Crisis.” (Washington, DC: ADC Research Institute, 1998). Documents bias, sensationalism and double standards in the New York Times, Washington Post, LA Times, CBS, ABC and CNN.
Flanders, Laura. “Restricting Reality: Media Mind-Games and the War” in Phyllis Bennis and Michel Moushabeck, eds., Beyond the Storm: A Gulf Crisis Reader (New York: Olive Branch Press, 1991). Analysis of media bias during the Gulf war.
Lee, Martin A. And Solomon, Norman. Unreliable Sources: A Guide to Detecting Bias in News Media (New York: Lyle Stuart, Carol Publications Group, 1990). Discusses effects of corporate ownership of the media, over reliance on official governmental sources, advertising, etc. Has chapter on coverage of terrorism as an issue; paperback edition has 9-page discussion of media coverage of the Gulf war.
Naureckas, Jim and Jackson, Janine. The Fair Reader: An Extra! Review of Press and Politics in the ‘90s (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996). Section on “Creating the New Hitler” during the Gulf war, with articles by Naureckas and Sam Husseini.
“Images of Conflict.” (Center for Media and Values, Los Angeles) A workshop kit with a 12-minute video essay, examining how Pentagon strategists controlled information and images to rally public support for the war with Iraq. This kit is ideal for encouraging critical thinking among middle and high school students.
EXTRA! Journal of media criticism published by FAIR (Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting). Often analyzes news coverage of Arab issues. May 1991 issue has extensive analysis of the coverage of the Gulf war. November-December 1990 has analysis of coverage of the build-up to war.